Wibrowanie betonu

Wibrowanie betonu

Atrykuł 16 “Praca z betonem” regulacji EH stanowi w punkcie 16.2 “Zagęszczanie betonu” co następuje: “Zagęszczanie betonów na placach budowy powinno być dokonywane wedłu procedur odpowiednich do konsystencji mieszanek i w sposób eliminujący dziury, który pozwoli uzyskać doskonale spoistą masę bez segregacji materiału. Proces zagęszczania powinien być kontynuowany aż do wypłynięcia mleczka na powierzchnię.”
Takie zagęszczenie może być uzyskane poprzez uzycie wibratora do betonu.
W JAKI SPOSÓB DZIAŁA WIBRATOR W CELU OSIAGNIĘCIA ODPOWIEDNIEGO ZAGESZCZENIA BETONU?
Beton jest mieszanką wody, substancji suchych (piasku i żwiru) oraz cementu. Wibrator przenosi do tej masy drgania o wysokiej częstotliwości, w taki sposób, że wewnętrzne tarcia pomiędzy cząsteczkami zmniejszają się i cząstki poddają się sile grawitacji, przybierając stan płynny, jak gdyby masa betonowa była cieczą. Otrzymana masa jest w stanie przylegać ścisle do zbrojenia i penetrować przestrzenie trudno dostępne.
Podczas tego procesu gazy zawarte w masie wypływaja na powierzchnię w postaci baniek. Beton zazwyczaj zawiera około 1% gazów w swojej objetości. Gazy są produktem reakcji chemicznych, które zachodzą pomiędzy komponentami betonu jak i powietrza, które zostało uwięzione w wyniku wylewania masy.
Masa zmienia się z niejednorodnej kupy w zageszczoną i błyszczącą. Poprzez wibrowanie można zapobiec odkładaniu się żwiru oraz pojawianiu się ubytków, upewniając się, że zaprawa wypełni wszystkie przestrzenie pomiędzy piaskiem i kamieniami.
Zbyt duża zawartość powietrza i wody osłabia wytrzymałość betonu. Poprzez wibrowanie uzyskuje się jednorodną mieszankę, zawierającą odpowiednie proporcje wody, powietrza i cementu, zwiększając w ten sposób wytrzymałość betonu.
Tendencja do używania betonów o suchszej konsystencji, z mniejszą relacją wody do cementu, czyni wibrator jeszcze bardziej potrzebnym, w celu upewnienia się, że powietrze nie zostało uwięzione w mieszance.
Po przewibrowaniu betonu, jego przekrój pokaże równomierny rozkład żwiru i piasku w całej masie, co czyni beton bardziej wytrzymałym.
Długość wibracji musi być właściwie oceniona, ponieważ nadmierne wibrowanie może spowodować akumulację żwiru w niższych partiach, a lżejszego materiału bliżej powierzchni. Taka segregacja powstaje przede wszystkim w betonach o ciekłej konsystencji. Segregacja może powodować nieregularną kurczliwość, wzmagając napięcia tworzące szczeliny. Patrz “UŻYTKOWANIE WIBRATORA”.
Zastosowanie wibratora polepsza także spoistość pomiędzy warstwą właśnie przygotowaną i wcześniejszą.
Aby zapewnić optymalne wymieszanie betonu, należy zacząć od doboru właściwych komponentów i dokonać wibrowania masy betonowej w całej strukturze.

Źródło: Przewodnik wibrowania, EnarCO

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